HOW TO USE THIS LIST:

* Need a tube? Don't know what to cross-reference it to? Search this list and see if there is an exact Svetlana replacement or possible substitute.

* Scroll down to find the tube type you are looking for. This list is in numerical then alphabetical order.

* Clicking on the link shown will take you to the Svetlana data sheet. Svetlana does NOT presently make any types which are not listed here as being made by Svetlana.

* If a tube is listed as being made by Svetlana, it is available from one of Svetlana's Stocking Distributors.

* "Out of production" means exactly that--it is NOT being made anywhere in the world.


(last updated 02/18/00)

*If you need data on NON Svetlana products, try the following sites: Tube search engine at Duncan Amplification & the tube data catalog at Tom Jennings' World Power Systems

1L6--frequency-converter tube, used in old Zenith Trans-Oceanic radios. Scarce and expensive, this old battery-radio tube tends to wear out quickly. The 1R5 or 1U6 can be substituted by changing components, with some loss of performance. Out of production, though old stock 1L6s, 1R5s and 1U6s are still available.

2A3--power triode, used in single-ended hi-fi amps. A double-plate version is made in China. Old stock American and European versions are very scarce and expensive.

2A3 SINGLE-PLATE--single-plate versions are very difficult to make. A high-cost version is currently being made by KR Enterprise in the Czech Republic. Suggest using Svetlana SV300B instead, this requires changing to a 5-volt filament supply and bias adjustment--consult with experienced service technician. See SV300B.

2C39A--UHF power triode, old type--still made in USA, and old stock versions are available.

3-500Z--power triode used in amateur-radio amplifiers. Popular, but getting expensive. Svetlana is developing 3-600Z, a more rugged exact plug-in replacement. Completion of development has been delayed indefinitely in favor of increasing production of existing tube types.

3C33--power triode--see 6528.

3CPX800A7--air-cooled power triode. Still made in USA. Will be introduced by Svetlana in late 1998. Pricing not yet established.

3CPX5000A7--air-cooled power triode. Still made in USA. Svetlana makes some unusual pulse tubes for Russian market. Basic data is available to OEM customers, please contact Svetlana applications engineering. For example see the GMI-42B.

3CW5000H3--water-cooled power triode--still made in USA.

3CW20,000A1--water-cooled power triode, low mu--made by Svetlana and in USA.

3CW20,000A7--water-cooled power triode, high mu--made by Svetlana and in USA.

3CW20,000H3--water-cooled power triode, medium mu--made by Svetlana and in USA.

3CW20,000H7--water-cooled power triode, high mu--made by Svetlana and in USA.

3CW30,000H3--water-cooled power triode, medium mu--made by Svetlana and in USA.

3CW40,000H3--water-cooled power triode. Still made in USA.

3CX300A1--air-cooled power triode, low mu--Svetlana is originator and only manufacturer. Socket SK2A and anode cap connector AC-1 are also available from Svetlana. Technical Bulletin No. 11 describes how to apply the 3CX300A1.

3CX400A7--air-cooled power triode (see 8874)--popular in amateur equipment and Motorola base stations--made by Svetlana. Svetlana version is exact drop-in replacement for USA version.

3CX400U7--air-cooled power triode--still made in USA.

3CX800A7--air-cooled power triode--popular amateur-radio tube. Made by Svetlana and in USA. See Svetlana distributor for pricing.

3CX1200A7--air-cooled power triode--Still made in USA.

3CX1200D7--air-cooled power triode--Still made in USA.

3CX1200Z7--air-cooled power triode--Still made in USA.

3CX1500A7--air-cooled power triode, popular in amateur-radio amplifiers--see 8877. Prototypes have been built by Svetlana. Completion of development has been delayed indefinitely, in favor of increasing production of existing tube types.

3CX2500A3/8161--air-cooled power triode, medium mu--made by Svetlana and in USA.

3CX2500F3/8251--air-cooled power triode, medium mu--made by Svetlana and in USA.

3CX2500H3--air-cooled power triode, medium mu--made by Svetlana and in USA.

3CX3000A1--air-cooled power triode--Still made in USA.

3CX3000A7--air-cooled power triode, medium mu--made by Svetlana and in USA.

3CX3000F1--air-cooled power triode--Still made in USA.

3CX3000F7/8162--air-cooled power triode, high mu--made by Svetlana and in USA.

3CX4500F3/YU108--air-cooled power triode used in industrial heating--made by Svetlana and in USA--see YU108.

3CX6000A7/YU148--air-cooled power triode, high mu--made by Svetlana and in USA--see YU148.

3CX10,000A3/8159--air-cooled power triode, high mu--made by Svetlana and in USA.

3CX10,000A7/8160--air-cooled power triode, high mu--made by Svetlana and in USA.

3CX10,000H3--air-cooled power triode, medium mu--made by Svetlana and in USA.

3CX10,000U7--air-cooled power triode--Still made in USA.

3CX15,000A3--air-cooled power triode, medium mu--made by Svetlana and in USA.

3CX15,000A7--air-cooled power triode, high mu--made by Svetlana and in USA.

3CX15,000H3--air-cooled power triode, medium mu--made by Svetlana and in USA.

3CX20,000A7--air-cooled power triode, high mu--Still made in USA.

3CX20,000C7--air-cooled power triode. Still made in USA. Will be introduced by Svetlana in late 1998. Pricing not yet established.

4-65A--power tetrode used in RF amplifiers. Popular, but getting expensive--no longer made in USA. Chinese version available.

4-400A--power tetrode used in RF amplifiers. Popular, but getting expensive--no longer made in USA. Chinese version available.

4-1000A--power tetrode used in RF amplifiers. Popular, but getting expensive--no longer made in USA. Chinese version available.

4CPW10,000R--water-cooled pulse power tetrode for industrial applications--made by Svetlana and in USA.

4CS250R--conduction-cooled power tetrode. Still made in USA.

4CV50,000E--large vapor-cooled power tetrode. Still made in USA.

4CV100,000C--large vapor-cooled power tetrode. Still made in USA.

4CV250,000B--large vapor-cooled power tetrode. Still made in USA.

4CW10,000A--water-cooled power tetrode for industrial applications--made by Svetlana and in USA.

4CX250B/7203--air-cooled power tetrode. Made by Svetlana and in USA.

4CX250BC/8957--air-cooled power tetrode. Made by Svetlana and in USA.

4CX250BT/Y497--air-cooled power tetrode. Made by Svetlana and in USA.

4CX250R/7580W--air-cooled power tetrode. Made by Svetlana and in USA.

4CX300A--air-cooled power tetrode. Still made in USA. A Svetlana 4CX250B can be retrofitted by installing an SK2A socket. Suggest examining data sheets on 4CX250B and SK2A.

4CX300Y--air-cooled power tetrode. Still made in USA.

4CX350A/8321--air-cooled power tetrode. Made by Svetlana and in USA.

4CX350AC/8321A--air-cooled power tetrode. Made by Svetlana and in USA.

4CX350R--power tetrode--Still made in USA. Also known as 8930. Will be introduced by Svetlana in early 1999. Pricing not yet established. Svetlana 4CX400A is mechanically similar and can be retrofitted. Suggest examining 4CX400A data sheet.

4CX400A--air-cooled power tetrode. Svetlana is originator and only manufacturer. Socket SK2A and anode cap connector AC-1 are also available from Svetlana. Technical Bulletin Nos. 1, 5 and 14 describe how to apply the 4CX400A.

4CX600JB--power tetrode--Still made in USA. Will be introduced by Svetlana in early 1999. Pricing not yet established.

4CX800A--air-cooled power tetrode. Svetlana is originator and only manufacturer. Socket SK1A and anode cap connector AC-1 are also available from Svetlana. Technical Bulletin Nos. 18 and 19 describe how to apply the 4CX800A.

4CPX800A--air-cooled power tetrode, specially rated for pulse applications. Svetlana is originator and only manufacturer. Socket SK1A and anode cap connector AC-1 are also available from Svetlana. Technical Bulletin Nos. 18 and 19 describe how to apply the 4CX800A.

4CX1000A--air-cooled power tetrode. Still made in USA. Equipment can be retrofitted with Svetlana 4CX1600B--this requires extensive modification. Suggest examining 4CX1600B and SK3A data.

4CX1000K--air-cooled power tetrode. See 4CX1000A.

4CX1500A--air-cooled power tetrode. Made by Svetlana and in USA. Not plug-in compatible with 4CX1500B. Equipment can be retrofitted with Svetlana 4CX1600B--this requires extensive modification. Suggest examining 4CX1600B and SK3A data.

4CX1500B--air-cooled power tetrode. Still made in USA. Svetlana makes 4CX1500A, which is a different type and not plug-in compatible. Equipment can be retrofitted with Svetlana 4CX1600B--this requires extensive modification. Suggest examining 4CX1600B and SK3A data.

4CX1600B--air-cooled power tetrode. Svetlana is originator and only manufacturer. Socket SK3A is also available from Svetlana. Technical Bulletin Nos. 18, 20, 25 , 30 and 35 describe how to apply the 4CX1600B.

4CX1600U-- also known as GS-23B-UHF air-cooled power tetrode, formerly made in Ukraine. No longer in production.

4CX3000A--air-cooled power tetrode. Still made in USA.

4CX3500A--air-cooled power tetrode. Made by Svetlana and in USA.

4CX5000A/8170--air-cooled power tetrode. Made by Svetlana and in USA.

4CX5000R/8170W--air-cooled power tetrode. Made by Svetlana and in USA.

4CX7500A--air-cooled power tetrode. Made by Svetlana and in USA.

4CX10,000D/8171--air-cooled power tetrode. Made by Svetlana and in USA.

4CX12,000A/8989--air-cooled power tetrode. Made by Svetlana and in USA.

4CX15,000A/8281--air-cooled power tetrode. Made by Svetlana and in USA.

4CX15,000J/8910--air-cooled power tetrode. Made by Svetlana and in USA.

4CX15,000R--air-cooled power tetrode. Made by Svetlana and in USA.

4CX20,000A/8990--air-cooled power tetrode. Made by Svetlana and in USA.

4CX20,000B--air-cooled power tetrode. Made by Svetlana and in USA.

4CX20,000C--air-cooled power tetrode. Made by Svetlana and in USA.

4CX20,000D--air-cooled power tetrode. Still made in USA.

4CX35,000C--air-cooled power tetrode. Still made in USA.

4PR60A--power tetrode used in pulse-power applications. Still made in USA. Svetlana does make some unusual pulse tubes for Russian market. Basic data is available to OEM customers, contact Svetlana applications engineering.

4X150A/7034--air-cooled power tetrode. Made by Svetlana and in USA.

UX-201A--antique-radio triode, also known as 01A or 301A. Increasingly scarce, not being manufactured, no easy substitute. A solid-state wafer is available which slips onto the base pins of a bad 201A, allowing the radio to operate.

5AR4--rectifier, widely used in hi-fi and guitar amps. Chinese version is available.

5CX1500A--air-cooled power pentode, made by Svetlana and in USA.

5CX1500B--air-cooled power pentode, made by Svetlana and in USA.

5R4--rectifier, used in some old amps. Old versions (G, GA, GY etc.) out of production, though old stock is still available--see other tube dealers.

5U4, 5U4G--rectifier, used in some guitar amps. 5U4G still made in Russia.

5V4--rectifier, used in some older hi-fi and guitar amps. An inexpensive one from Russia is available. Old versions are still available--see other tube dealers.

5Y3--rectifier, used in some older hi-fi and guitar amps. Svetlana sells a 5Y3WGB, which is an upgraded version with an indirectly-heated cathode. This tube is not made by Svetlana but by another Russian factory. It is not in the regular Svetlana product list but is available from Svetlana distributors.

5Z4--rectifier, used in old radios. Out of production, though old stock is still available--see other tube dealers.

6A3--power triode, used in single-ended hi-fi amps. Scarce and expensive. Out of production. (see 2A3)

6A5--power triode, similar to 6A3. Special type with sleeves over the filaments to decrease hum. Out of production. (See 2A3)

6AM6--also called EF91--small RF pentode. Out of production, though old stock is still available.

6AN8--small triode-pentode, used in the old Dynaco Mark 3 amplifier and a few others. Out of production, though old stock is still available--see other tube dealers. A 6GH8, 6U8 or similar can be substituted, by changing the pin connections--suggest contacting an experienced technician.

6AQ5--a small power pentode, also called 6005. Often seen in small amplifiers from 1950s. Out of production, though old stock is still available--see other tube dealers. In some circuits, the Svetlana SV83 might be usable--this requires changing sockets and possibly providing a lower screen-grid voltage. This is a considerable modification which requires an experienced technician.

6AS7A--a power triode for power supplies and hi-fi amplifiers. Svetlana makes an excellent one which is closely modeled on the original RCA version. Svetlana's is the only one in production at this time. 6AS7A will electrically replace the 6080, which is no longer made. Some equipment does not have room for 6AS7s, as they are physically much larger than 6080s.Also see Technical Bulletin No 26 - Maximum Sound Quality from a Single 6AS7.

6BG6--old TV sweep tube, used in some early hi-fi amps. The Ulyanov factory in Russia is still making one. There are many similar sweep tubes, such as the 6CD6 and 6DQ6. Retrofitting equipment to accept the 6BG6 (or the Svetlana SV6L6GC or EL509, if possible) is recommended. Svetlana has some old production Ulyanov 6BG6Gs in stock.

6BK4--beam triode used as a high-voltage regulator. Out of production. Svetlana makes a triode called GP-5, which is used as a shunt regulator up to 30,000 volts. The GP-5 is very similar to the 6BK4 except for its magnoval base. Equipment can be retrofitted to take GP-5s by changing to SK509 sockets.

6BM8--miniature glass triode/power pentode, used in TV sets and in older hi-fi amplifiers. Svetlana makes only version in current production. Also called ECL82. Also see Technical Bulletins 10 and 26.

6BQ5--small power pentode. Also called EL84. Very popular in smaller guitar amps, such as the classic Vox AC-30 which the Beatles used. Also popular in hi-fi. Still made in Russia (2 versions), Yugoslavia and China. Svetlana sells the SV83, which is similar to the EL84 except for a lower screen-grid rating of 200 volts. Svetlana has a Technical Bulletin No.29, describing how to modify an EL84 amp to accept SV83s.

6BQ7--small preamp dual triode used in radio equipment. Out of production, though old stock is still available--see other tube dealers. Svetlana sells a similar tube called 6N1P, which is superior for audio applications. It may work in 6BQ7 sockets, although it requires more heater current. Consult with equipment manufacturer or a qualified service technician.

6C4--small preamp triode used in early hi-fi equipment. Out of production, though old stock is still available--see other tube dealers.

6C19--a small power triode used in high-end amplifiers. Made by the Ulyanov factory in Russia. Svetlana has some old production in stock.

6C33CB--a big power triode used in high-end amplifiers. Made by the Ulyanov factory in Russia. Svetlana has some old production in stock.

6C45--triode, Russian type,extremely high transconductance. Believed out of production. Sveltana does not manufacture or sell this type. Contact NOS tube dealers for samples.

6CA7-- a beam tetrode for guitar amps and hi-fi amps. It is a plug-in replacement for the EL34, but is more rugged. (It sounds quite different from the EL34--many people prefer the 6CA7 in guitar amps.) The 6CA7 is currently out of production. The Svetlana SV6550Ccan be substituted for the 6CA7 by modifying the amp's bias circuitry. This modification is recommended as the closest current available equivalent to a true 6CA7. Svetlana also makes an excellent EL34 which can directly substitute for the 6CA7, with no equipment modifications or rebiasing required.

6CD6--TV sweep tube. Out of production. (See 6BG6)

6CG7--a medium-power dual triode. Often found in hi-fi amplifiers made by Audio Research. A version is being made in Yugoslavia.

6CL6--small power tube, sometimes seen in older audio equipment. Out of production, old stock is still available--see other tube dealers. Suggest that equipment be modified to accept Svetlana SV83--this requires an experienced service technician.

6CW4--Nuvistor tube, used in old FM tuners and some hi-fi and pro audio. Nuvistors are scarce and unlikely to be made in the future by anyone. Tooling would be very expensive to develop, and the market is too small to support production.

6CW5--small power pentode, also called EL86. Occasionally used in older hi-fi amps and radios. Out of production. Suggest that equipment be modified to accept Svetlana SV83--this requires an experienced service technician.

6D22S--half-wave glass power rectifier. Svetlana is originator and only manufacturer. SK509 socket and PC509 cathode cap are also available from Svetlana. See our Technical Bulletin No.22 - A Push-Pull SV572-3 Amplifier - for an application suggestion.

6DJ8--small preamp tube, widely used in modern hi-fi amps and preamps. Also known as premium types 6922, 7308. A 6922 made in Russia is available and will work in any 6DJ8 socket. Svetlana has the 6N1P, which is plug-in compatible (except for higher heater current requirement--most equipment can accommodate the extra heater current) and suitable for 6DJ8 replacement in line stages, cathode followers and power-amp driver stages.

6DL5--same as EL95. Small power pentode for audio. Out of production. Suggest that equipment be modified to accept Svetlana SV83--this requires an experienced service technician.

6DN7--TV oscillator tube, used in some hi-fi equipment. Out of production.

6DQ6--TV sweep tube--Out of production. (See 6BG6)

6E5--Tuning indicator tube or "eye" tube, used in old radios. Out of production, old versions are getting scarce. Suggest using a 1629 and adapter available from Antique Electronic Supply.

6EA7--see 6EM7.

6EJ4--beam triode, high-voltage shunt regulator. Out of production. See 6BK4. 6EJ4 is similar to Svetlana GP-5 except for Magnoval base in the latter. Suggest retrofitting equipment to accept Svetlana GP-5.

6EJ7--small pentode, used in Futterman hi-fi amps. Out of production. Suggest that equipment be modified to accept Svetlana SV83--this requires an experienced service technician.

6EM7--TV oscillator tube, used in some hi-fi equipment. Out of production.

6EU7--small preamp dual triode, used in some older guitar amps. A version is made in Russia. Also suggest modifying equipment to accept 12AX7 instead, which is very similar.

6EY6--beam power tetrode, originally used in TV sets. Out of production. Guitar-amp parts dealers have been marketing 6EY6 as a replacement for 6V6GT. Sounds different from 6V6GT types, using it is up to the consumer. It will work, but uses much more filament current and may load down the power transformer in a 6V6 guitar amp. (see 6V6GT)

6EZ5--beam power tetrode, originally used in TV sets. Out of production. Guitar-amp parts dealers have been marketing 6EZ5 as a replacement for 6V6GT. Sounds different from 6V6GT types, using it is up to the consumer. It will work, but uses much more filament current and may load down the power transformer in a 6V6 guitar amp. (see 6V6GT)

6F6--power pentode, widely used in old radios. Out of production. Suggest retrofitting with 6V6GT.

6FQ7--version of 6CG7, direct plug-in replacement for it. (see 6CG7)

6FS7--medium-power pentode, used in Futterman hi-fi amps. Out of production. Equipment can be modified to accept Svetlana SV83, considerable modification is required. Suggest contacting an experienced technician.

6GH8A--small triode-pentode, used in older hi-fi amps and other equipment. Out of production, though old stock is still easy to find. (Note: there are many plug-in replacements for 6GH8--they include 6U8, 6KD8, 6AU8 and others. Consult a tube manual for more substitutes.)

6GL7--see 6EM7.

6GM5--version of 7591 with different basing--see 7591.

6H10--dual triode, similar to 6SC7, made in Russia. No longer in production. Only old stock is available from a few old-stock tube dealers. For help locating NOS tubes see our listing of old stock specialty tube dealers.

6H30--dual triode, high transconductance, made in Russia. Believed no longer in production. Only old stock is available from Balanced Audio Technology ( www.balanced.com). Svetlana does not sell or support this product.

6HU8--dual pentode, used in old Fisher hi-fi amps. Long out of production. Unique, very scarce and expensive--there is no easy replacement for it. European number is ELL80. Suggest retrofit to accept a pair of Svetlana SV83s instead of a single 6HU8--this requires considerable modification and the services of an experienced technician.

6J5, 6J5GT--preamp triode, used in audio--has underground audiophile following. Out of production. A possible substitute is the Svetlana 6N1P. This is a major modification and requires the services of an experienced technician.

6J7, 6J7G/GT--preamp pentode, used in audio--has underground audiophile following. Out of production. A possible substitute is the Svetlana EF86. This is a major modification and requires the services of an experienced technician.

6JK6--small pentode, used in IF section of the Marantz 10B tuner. Out of production, very scarce. Svetlana's SV83 or other small high-transconductance pentodes may be usable if the equipment is modified. This is a major modification, which requires the services of a highly skilled technician. It will probably decrease the resale value of the tuner, so it should be undertaken only as a last resort.

6JE6--see 6JS6.

6JS6--large TV "sweep" tube, used in audio, CB and amateur radio amplifiers. Out of production. Scarce and expensive, as are all large American sweep tubes. Suggest modifying the amp to accept Svetlana EL509--requires new socket and rewiring, might require modification to bias circuits. EL509 requires SK509 socket, it and PC509 plate cap connector are also available from Svetlana.

6KD6--large TV "sweep" tube, used in audio, CB and amateur radio amplifiers. Out of production. Scarce and expensive, as are all large American sweep tubes. Suggest modifying the amp to accept Svetlana EL509--requires new socket and rewiring, might require modification to bias circuits. EL509 requires SK509 socket, it and PC509 plate cap connector are also available from Svetlana.

6KG6--TV sweep tube--Svetlana manufactures. (see EL509)

6L6GC--beam tetrode, very popular in guitar amps, rarely used in hi-fi. Svetlana SV6L6GC is an excellent version and requires no rebiasing of the amp. The SV6L6GC can also replace older versions (metal 6L6, 6L6G, GA, GB, WGB, 5881, etc) without modifying or rebiasing the equipment. Also see Technical Bulletin 16.

6L6WGB--supposed to be a super-premium 6L6GB for military use. Most old American versions were identical to 5881. Current Chinese-made tube under this name is good-quality but not like a 5881. Suggest Svetlana SV6L6GC.

6LF6--large TV "sweep" tube, used in audio, CB and amateur radio amplifiers. Out of production. Scarce and expensive, as are all large American sweep tubes. Suggest modifying the amp to accept Svetlana EL509--requires new socket and rewiring, might require modification to bias circuits. EL509 requires SK509 socket, it and PC509 plate cap connector are also available from Svetlana.

6LQ6--large TV "sweep" tube, used in audio, CB and amateur radio amplifiers. Out of production. Scarce and expensive, as are all large American sweep tubes. Suggest modifying the amp to accept Svetlana EL509. This may require a new socket and rewiring, and might require modification to bias circuits. See our Technical Bulletin No. 32 for some ideas on replacing the 6LQ6 with our EL509. Requires SK509 socket, it and PC509 plate cap connector are also available from Svetlana.

6N1P--dual triode, similar to a 6BQ7 with larger cathodes and different internal construction. Made in Russia. Usable as a plug-in replacement in many 6DJ8/6922 applications. Sold by Svetlana. Also see Technical Bulletin 27 - A High-Performance Mu Stage Using the Svetlana 6N1P and SV83.

6N10--see 6H10

6N30--see 6H30

6S19P--see 6C19

6SJ7--small preamp pentode, octal base. Used in older audio equipment and some modern hi-fi. One made at the Voskhod factory in Russia is available, along with old-stock versions.A possible substitute is the Svetlana EF86. This is a major modification and requires the services of an experienced technician.

6SL7--small preamp dual triode, high gain, octal base. Used in pre-1956 hi-fis and guitar amps, and in a few modern amps. One made at the Voskhod factory in Russia is available, along with old-stock versions. Svetlana has some old production in stock. This tube is not made by Svetlana but by another Russian factory. It is not in the regular Svetlana product list but is available from Svetlana distributors.

6SN7--small preamp dual triode, medium gain, octal base. Used in older hi-fi and some modern hi-fi. One made at the Voskhod factory in Russia is available, along with old-stock versions. Svetlana has some old production in stock. This tube is not made by Svetlana but by another Russian factory. It is not in the regular Svetlana product list but is available from Svetlana distributors.

6T5--tuning-eye tube, rare collector's item--can be replaced with 6E5. Out of production. 6T5 has a different glow pattern from 6E5 and other types, making it collectible. See 6E5.

6U5--tuning-eye tube, see 6E5.

6U8A--triode-pentode--see 6GH8.

6V6GT--small beam power tetrode, used in popular guitar amps. A Chinese version is available, although it does not work well in older guitar amps. Recommend using old-stock 6V6GTs in such amplifiers. A possible substitute in SOME amplifiers is the Svetlana SV83. This is a major modification and requires the services of an experienced technician. This modification will decrease the resale value of a vintage guitar amp, and should only be undertaken as a last resort.

6X4--small rectifier tube, used in older hi-fi. Out of production.

10--old power triode, also known as 210 or 801A. It has an underground following with audiophiles. Out of production. It is scarce and getting expensive, demand is very low. Suggest modifying equipment to accept Svetlana SV811-3 or SV572-3.

12AT7--a common preamp dual triode. A version is in production in Slovakia.

12AU7--a common preamp dual triode. Believed to be out of production currently. Svetlana plans to make a 12AU7 for introduction in 2000, pricing has not been established yet.

12AX7--the most common audio preamp dual triode. The old Telefunken smooth-plate ECC83 is the most desired old-stock style (especially in hi-fi), it is scarce and expensive. Versions are in production in Slovakia, Yugoslavia and Russia. Svetlana plans to make a 12AX7 for introduction in 2000, pricing has not been established yet.

12AY7--a special low-noise dual triode for audio equipment. Out of production, old stock is available. GE 6072A is probably the best. There is no other exact replacement, although the 5751 can substitute in some equipment. (see 6072)

12BH7--a medium-power dual triode, often seen in pro-audio equipment. A version is in production in Yugoslavia.

12BY7--a small pentode used in the Harman-Kardon Citation II amplifier, in much vintage Collins radio equipment and in old TV equipment. Out of production. A possible substitute is the Svetlana SV83. This is a major modification (pinout is different) and requires the services of an experienced technician.

12DW7--a small dual triode used in a few older guitar and hi-fi amps. A version is made in Yugoslavia.

12X4--see 6X4.

13CW4--Nuvistor tube, used as a retrofit in some studio microphones. Out of production. See 6CW4.

16BM8--version of 6BM8 with unusual heater voltage--used in Russian series-string TV sets, available from Svetlana.

20LF6--see 6LF6

27LF6--see 6LF6

42--power pentode, widely used as audio output in old radios. Out of production. Suggest changing socket to allow use of Svetlana SV83--this is a considerable modification, requiring the services of an experienced technician. It may decrease the value of a classic radio and should be done only as a last resort.

45--small power triode, widely used in old radios and sometimes used in single-ended hi-fi amplifiers. Out of production. Old ones are getting scarce. There is no direct replacement; military version VT-52 is even scarcer. (Warning: at least one tube distributor is selling Chinese 2A3s and labeling them as 45s--this will NOT work--the 2A3 requires much more filament power than a 45, and could damage the power transformer.)

50--power triode, sometimes seen in old radios and in single-ended hi-fi amplifiers. There is no direct replacement (the 10 is similar but not recommended). A version of the 50 is still made in the USA, only one still in production. Equipment can be modified to accept Svetlana SV300B by changing the filament supply to 5 volts and adjusting bias.

80--rectifier tube, widely used in old radios. Out of production. Suggest changing socket to allow use of 5Y3 if absolutely necessary--this may decrease the value of a classic radio.

83--mercury-vapor rectifier tube, used in old radios and a few early Fender guitar amps. Do not use 5Y3, damage may result. Out of production.

100TH--old power triode, high mu, used in older radio transmitters. Still made in China.

101--old audio triode, also called 101A, B, C, etc.... Audiophile cult item, especially in Japan. Out of production, no easy substitute.

205--old audio triode, also called 205A, B, C or D. Sometimes called "tennis ball tube". Out of production. Audiophile cult item, especially in Japan. No easy substitute, although Svetlana SV811-3 or SV572-3 could be used by changing sockets and providing 6.3v at 4 amps for filament.

210--see 10

211--old audio power triode, used in modern single-ended hi-fi amps. Chinese version is available, though some people have quality issues with it. Old stock is expensive. Suggest retrofitting amp to accept Svetlana SV572-10--requires new socket, 6.3v filament power, and bias adjustment. Suggest contacting an experienced technician.

212E--old audio power triode, also called 212A, B, C or D, later version was called 308B. Audiophile cult item, especially in Japan. Very large glass tube. 308B is said to be in development for imminent production in USA, possibly in Czech Republic as well. Currently out of production.

250TH--old power triode, high mu, used in older radio transmitters. Still made in China. USA production recently stopped.

250TL--old power triode, low mu, used in older radio transmitters. Still made in China. USA production recently stopped.

252A--power triode, audiophile cult item especially in Japan. Out of production. Original version is scarce and sells for $800-up. Suggest using Svetlana SV300B, which is an exact plug-in replacement. (see 300B)

274A, B--full-wave rectifier tube, audiophile cult item, especially in Japan. Currently out of production. Original version is scarce and sells for $250-up. 5U4G can replace 274B if filament supply is upgraded to 3 amps. 5U4G can replace 274A if socket is changed to octal type and filament supply is upgraded to 3 amps.

275A--power triode, audiophile cult item especially in Japan. Out of production. Original version is scarce and sells for $250-up. The Svetlana SV300B may be substituted by adjusting the bias voltage and the plate loading. Suggest contacting an experienced technician.

300A--earlier version of 300B, electrically identical--see 300B

300B--power triode, very popular with audiophiles in hi-fi amps. Almost always used in single-ended circuit. Svetlana manufactures a reproduction of the original Western Electric tube, called SV300B.

304TH--old power triode, high mu, used in older radio transmitters. Still made in China. USA production recently stopped.

304TL--old power triode, low mu, used in older radio transmitters and some single-ended hi-fi amps. Still made in China. USA production recently stopped.

310A--small-signal pentode, used in 1930s Western Electric amplifiers and in underground audiophile equipment. Out of production. A possible substitute is the Svetlana EF86. This is a major modification and requires the services of an experienced technician.

417A--small preamp triode, very low noise--underground popularity with audiophiles. Out of production, old stock is easy to find. Same as 5842.

437A-- small preamp triode, very high Gm, very low noise- underground popularity with audiophiles. Out of production, scarce and expensive.

450TH--old power triode, high mu, used in older radio transmitters. Still made in China. USA production recently stopped.

450TL--old power triode, low mu, used in older radio transmitters. Still made in China. USA production recently stopped.

572B--glass power triode, high mu, graphite anode--made by Svetlana and in China. Can replace 811A, offers increased reliability. Also see Technical Bulletins 15 and 34.

801A--see 10

805--old audio power triode, used in old radio transmitters and some single-ended hi-fi amps. Old stock is expensive, $150 or more. Still made in China and USA.

807--beam power tetrode, often used in older radio equipment and some early hi-fi. Uprated version of 6L6GC with plate cap and 5-pin base. Still made in China. If quality is an issue, old stock 807s are available from tube dealers at high cost. Some equipment can be modified to accept Svetlana SV6L6GC. Suggest contacting an experienced technician.

809--old audio power triode, used in World War II equipment. Out of production. Suggest retrofitting with Svetlana 811A or 812A. Suggest contacting an experienced technician.

810--old audio power triode, used in old radio transmitters. Still manufactured in China and USA.

811--older version of 811A -- see 811A

811A--glass power triode, high mu, used in older transmitters and other equipment. Svetlana no longer offers an 811A, although we do sell the higher-dissipation 572B (an exact plug-in replacement for 811As) and the lower-mu 812A. Also see Technical Bulletins 2, 13, 17, and 24.

812--see 812A

812A--old power triode, medium mu, used in older transmitters and ultrasonic cleaning equipment. Svetlana has a version of high quality, usable in any 812 or 812A socket.

813--transmitting beam-power tetrode. Still made in Russia and China.

829--transmitting beam-power tetrode. Still made in Russia and China.

832--transmitting beam-power tetrode. Still made in Russia and China.

833A--large glass power triode, used in older AM transmitters and in a few modern hi-fi amplifiers. Still made in China.

845--old audio power triode, used in modern single-ended hi-fi amps. Still made in China and USA. Old stock is expensive. Suggest retrofitting amp to accept Svetlana SV572-3--requires new socket, 6.3v filament power and bias adjustments. Suggest contacting an experienced technician.

1614--premium version of metal-cased 6L6, originally the standard tube in the McIntosh MC-30 hi-fi amplifier. Scarce, not made in many years. Svetlana SV6L6GC can exactly replace the 1614 without modification of the amp.

1619--version of 1614 with direct-heated 2.5v cathode. Out of production. See 1614. Svetlana SV6L6GC can be substituted by providing 6.3v heater power and modifying circuit. This is a considerable modification and requires the assistance of an experienced technician.

1622--lower-power version of metal-cased 6L6. Out of production. Svetlana SV6L6GC can exactly replace the 1622 without modification of the amp.

1625--version of 807 with different base. Out of production--see 807.

5687--dual triode computer tube, has an underground audiophile following. Out of production. 6900 and 7044 are plug-in replacements. Used in modern high-end audio equipment. Old stock is easy to find.

5691--special rugged version of 6SL7, used in MFA Luminescence hi-fi preamp--very scarce, out of production--see 6SL7.

5692--special rugged version of 6SN7, used in underground audiophile equipment --very scarce, out of production--see 6SN7.

5751--dual triode used in Conrad-Johnson preamps, has a small audiophile following. Out of production, old stock is easy to find. 12AX7 may be substituted in some cases.

5763--small beam-power tetrode, used in 1950s radio equipment. Out of production, scarce and expensive. Suggest that equipment be modified to accept Svetlana SV83--this requires an experienced service technician.

5842--low-noise triode, used in RF and underground audiophile equipment--see 417A.

5881--beam power tube, version of 6L6GB--popular in older guitar amps. Still made in Russia. Svetlana SV6L6GC is excellent, exact plug-in replacement for any 5881. It requires no rebiasing and is very rugged and long-lasting.

5930--special rugged 2A3--Out of production, scarce and expensive--see 2A3.

5931--special rugged 5U4--Out of production, scarce and expensive--suggest Russian 5U4G.

5932--special rugged 6L6--Out of production, scarce and expensive--suggest using Svetlana SV6L6GC instead, no bias adjustments are required.

5963--special dual triode used in early computers--Out of production, use 12AU7 instead.

5965--see 5963.

6072A--super-quality version of the 12AY7. See 12AY7.

6080--rugged industrial version of 6AS7--physically smaller. Out of production. Svetlana 6AS7 is suggested as substitute, though it may not fit into some equipment made for 6080. (see 6AS7)

6094--small beam-power tetrode, used in military equipment--underground audiophile following. It is still being made in USA in small quantities. Old stock is sometimes available.

6146--beam power tetrode, popular in older radio transmitters and found in some audio amps. Still made in China. If quality is an issue, old stock may be available.

6201--special high-reliability version of 12AT7--see 12AT7.

6267--see EF86--Svetlana makes only version in production today.

6336--power triode, used in power supplies and some modern hi-fi amplifiers. It was used in an amplifier made by Italian firm Graaf. There is no direct equivalent. Out of production, scarce and expensive. Suggest replacing with Svetlana 6AS7 if possible--consult with experienced service technician or equipment manufacturer.

6360--small power tetrode used in radio equipment. Still made in Russia, under number GU-17.

6384--beam-power tetrode, used in military equipment--underground audiophile following. Still made in USA in small quantities.

6528--power triode, used in power supplies--underground audiophile following. Out of production, no direct equivalent. Old stock is difficult to find but may be available. Suggest replacing with Svetlana 6AS7 if possible--consult with experienced service technician or equipment manufacturer.

6550--beam tetrode, popular in hi-fi and bass-guitar amps. Originally made by Tung-Sol. Svetlana SV6550C is excellent, reliable, and will replace any type 6550. Rebiasing of some older amps may be required to let them accept SV6550C.

6550A--uprated version of 6550, 42 watts dissipation instead of 35 watts. Made by GE and Sylvania in 1970s and 1980s. Svetlana SV6550C is exact replacement for all 6550A types. Rebiasing of some older amps may be required to let them accept SV6550C. Suggest contacting an experienced technician or equipment manufacturer.

6550B--older Svetlana 6550 type--obsolete and out of production. See SV6550C.

6550B-2--older Svetlana 6550 type--obsolete and out of production. See SV6550C.

6550B-3--older Svetlana 6550 type--obsolete and out of production. See SV6550C.

6688--small pentode, low noise, used in older radio equipment. Out of production, old stock readily available. Sometimes used by audiophiles in homebrew amps.

6696--large air-cooled power triode--Out of production--suggest retrofit with another type.

6697--large air-cooled power triode--Out of production--suggest retrofit with another type.

6900--upgraded version of 5687--see 5687. 6900 is still being made in USA in small quantities.

6922--premium 6DJ8--see 6DJ8

6973--small beam-power tetrode, used rarely in older hi-fi and pro audio equipment. Out of production, scarce and expensive. Suggest converting equipment to accept Svetlana SV83--this is a major modification and requires an experienced service technician.

7025--special low-hum 12AX7--see 12AX7.

7027--beam power tube, similar to 6L6GC. Some older guitar amps used 7027A. A version is manufactured in Slovakia. Old versions are scarce. Svetlana SV6L6GC is an excellent substitute--socket wiring must be changed, suggest it be done by an experienced technician. Svetlana SV6550C is also an excellent substitute, although it requires upgrading the heater supply.

7027A--beam power tube, uprated version of 6L6GC with slightly different basing and characteristics. Used in some older guitar amps. A version is being made in Slovakia. Svetlana SV6L6GC is an excellent substitute for 7027 or 7027A. Amp must be modified. This requires moving any connections on pin 1 to pin 8, and moving connections on pin 6 to pin 5. Also requires inserting a 1000-ohm 5-watt resistor in series with each tube's screen grid (pin 4), and adjusting the bias. This is a major modification, and requires the assistance of an experienced technician.

7034--see 4X150A

7044--dual triode, used in RF equipment and in homebrew hi-fi--upgraded version of 5687--see 5687.

7189--small beam power tetrode, often used in older hi-fi. Out of production. 6BQ5/EL84 is plug-in replacement, although older amps apply excessive voltage. Svetlana SV83 may be usable, though the plate and screen voltages should be reduced. Suggest consulting with an experienced technician. (see 6BQ5)

7199--small triode-pentode, used in the old Dynaco Stereo-70 amplifier and many others. A version is made in Russia. A 6GH8 or 6U8 type can be substituted, by changing the pin connections--suggest contacting an experienced technician.

7203--see 4CX250B

7241--power triode--see 6528.

7242--power triode--see 6528.

7247--special high-reliability version of 12DW7--see 12DW7.

7308--out of production, scarce and expensive. Upgraded version of 6922. See 6DJ8.

7355--small beam power tetrode--used in a few old hi-fi amps. Out of production, scarce and expensive. Svetlana SV6L6GC could be substituted if socket is rewired and bias circuit is changed; output power will be decreased. Suggest contacting an experienced technician.

7408--premium version of 6V6GT--see 6V6GT.

7580W--see 4CX250R

7581, 7581A--beam power tube, uprated version of 6L6GC and sometimes given as replacement for KT66. Out of production. Old 7581s made by GE are rare and expensive. The GEs can easily be recognized by their flesh-colored base. Svetlana SV6L6GC is an excellent substitute for 7581 and usually does not require rebiasing.

7586--Nuvistor tube, used in some pro-audio equipment--see 6CW4.

7591--small beam power tetrode, common in old hi-fi and some guitar amps. 7591 was popular in early 1960s. Out of production, scarce and expensive. There is no easy substitute, the 7868 and 6GM5 are electrically identical but have different bases--they are also scarce and expensive. Svetlana has delayed development of a 7591 at this time. Introduction date is unknown. A version is allegedly being developed in Russia by another company. Svetlana SV6L6GC could be substituted if socket is rewired and bias circuit is changed; output power will be decreased. Suggest contacting an experienced technician. For help locating NOS 7591A tubes see our listing of old stock specialty tube dealers.

7788--ultra-high-transconductance pentode, used in RF and audio preamps--see 6688.

7868--small beam power tetrode, common in old hi-fi and some guitar amps. Was popular in early 1960s. Out of production, scarce and expensive. There is no easy substitute, the 7591 and 6GM5 are electrically identical but have different bases--they are also scarce and expensive. 7868 is unlikely to be manufactured again in the future. Svetlana has delayed development of a 7591 at this time. Introduction date is unknown. A version is allegedly being developed in Russia by another company. Svetlana SV6L6GC could be substituted if socket and bias circuit are changed; output power will be decreased. Suggest contacting an experienced technician.

7895--Nuvistor tube, used in Ampex MR-70 tape recorder and other pro-audio equipment. Out of production. See 6CW4.

8045G--power triode, made in Japan by NEC especially for a 1970s-model Luxman amplifier. Long out of production, scarce and expensive. Unlikely to be manufactured again. There may have been a version marketed by Golden Dragon recently. We recommend having the amplifier modified to accept a triode-connected EL34 or KT88. This may be a difficult and expensive change, though less expensive than finding new 8045Gs. Please consult with an experienced service technician.

8068--a glass beam power tetrode used in high-voltage power supplies, and sometimes in "homebrew" hi-fi amplifiers. It is a very special tube, capable of operating at up to 3500 volts. Out of production, scarce and expensive. Suggest the equipment be modified to accept a small ceramic tube, such as Svetlana 3CX300A1 or 4CX350A. This is a major modification and requires more heater current and new SK2A sockets, plus forced-air cooling provisions.

8072--power tetrode--not being manufactured at this time. Suggest retrofit of Svetlana 4CX400A--this is a major modification and requires an experienced technician.

8106--small pentode, used in mobile radio equipment. Equipment could be modified to accept 12BY7 or SV83. This is a major modification and requires the services of an experienced technician.

8121--power tetrode--still made in USA. Suggest retrofit of Svetlana 4CX400A. This is a major modification and requires the services of an experienced technician.

8122--power tetrode--still made in USA. Suggest retrofit of Svetlana 4CX400A. This is a major modification and requires the services of an experienced technician.

8156--small beam pentode, used in mobile radio equipment. Out of production. There is no easy substitute, Svetlana EL509 could be used with considerable equipment modification--suggest consulting with an experienced mobile-radio technician.

8159--see 3CX10,000A3

8160--see 3CX10,000A7

8161--see 3CX2500A3

8161R--air-cooled power triode used for industrial heating-- made by Svetlana and in USA. Identical to TH5-6. Version of TH5-4 with mesh filament.

8162--see 3CX3000F7

8170--see 4CX5000A

8170W--see 4CX5000R

8171--see 4CX10,000D

8251--see 3CX2500F3

8281--see 4CX15,000A

8321--see 4CX350A

8321A--see 4CX350AC

8417--power beam tetrode used in hi-fi amplifiers. Out of production, scarce and expensive. The Sylvania version was the best, the GE had problems with grid overheating. Suggest that the amp be modified to accept Svetlana SV6550C--this requires rewiring the base and changing the bias circuitry to provide a more negative bias voltage. The amp will produce less power unless the driver stage is extensively modified. Consult an experienced technician.

8560AS--conduction-cooled power tetrode, widely used in Motorola "Micor" base-station equipment. Made by Svetlana and in USA.

8791V1--TV tetrode, still made in USA.

8792V1--TV tetrode, still made in USA.

8806--TV tetrode, still made in USA.

8807--TV tetrode, still made in USA.

8661-- see 4CW10,000A

8873--conduction-cooled tetrode, popular in amateur radio linear amps (Heathkit SB240)--made in USA. Suggest retrofit with Svetlana 4CX400A or 4CX800A. Svetlana has Technical Bulletins Nos. 14 and 19, describing this retrofit into similar amateur linear amplifiers. The 8874 can also be retrofitted (see 8874).

8874--air-cooled power triode (see 3CX400A7)--popular in amateur equipment and Motorola base stations--made by Svetlana and in USA. Svetlana version is exact drop-in replacement for USA version.

8875--air-cooled triode, popular in amateur radio linear amps (Dentron MLA2500)--made in USA. Suggest retrofit with Svetlana 4CX400A or 4CX800A. Svetlana has Technical Bulletins Nos. 14 and 19, describing this retrofit into the Dentron MLA2500.

8877--triode, popular in amateur-radio amplifiers--made in USA. Suggest retrofit with Svetlana 4CX1600B--requires new socket (SK3A) and other mods. Svetlana has Technical Bulletins Nos. 20, 25, and 31, describing homebrew amplifiers using the 4CX1600B. Prototypes have been built by Svetlana. Completion of development has been delayed indefinitely, in favor of increasing production of existing tube types.

8910--see 4CX15,000J

8916--TV tetrode, still made in USA.

8930--see 4CX350R.

8950--power tetrode used in mobile radio equipment. Out of production, scarce and expensive. Suggest that the equipment be modified to accept Svetlana EL509, this is an involved job requiring an experienced technician. EL509 requires SK509 socket, it and PC509 plate cap connector are also available from Svetlana.

8957--see 4CX250BC

8961--see 3CX400U7.

8975--power tetrode used in mobile radio equipment. Out of production, scarce and expensive. Suggest that the equipment be modified to accept Svetlana EL509, this is an involved job requiring an experienced technician. EL509 requires SK509 socket, it and PC509 plate cap connector are also available from Svetlana.

8984--TV tetrode, still made in USA.

8989--see 4CX12,000A

8990--see 4CX20,000A

9007--FM broadcast tetrode, still made in USA. Close equivalent is Svetlana 4CX20,000C. Substantial equipment modification is required.

9016-- see 4CPW10000R

9019--see YC130

AC701--small preamp triode, used in studio microphones. Out of production, scarce and expensive. Retrofitting the microphone with a Svetlana EF86 is recommended, suggest consulting an experienced technician. Only other option is to contact a specialist dealer.

Battery-radio tubes--all such tubes (1G4, 1L6, 3Q5, DK92, etc.) are currently out of production are are expected to remain so, due to their very small demand compared to common audio tube types. Battery tubes use special filaments and tend to be expensive to make. Old stock of some types is still available.

BW1184--industrial heating triode--still made in Europe.

BW1185--industrial heating triode--still made in Europe.

CCa--out of production, scarce and expensive. Upgraded version of 6922. See 6DJ8.

E34L--version of EL34 made in Slovakia--gives slightly more peak power than standard EL34, otherwise similar. Svetlana EL34 is exact substitute and requires only a bias adjustment.

E83CC--out of production, scarce and expensive. Premium 12AX7-- see 12AX7

E88CC--out of production, scarce and expensive. Premium 6DJ8-- see 6DJ8

ECC81--European name for 12AT7. (see 12AT7)

ECC82--European name for 12AU7. (see 12AU7)

ECC83--European name for 12AX7. (see 12AX7)

ECC88--European name for 6DJ8. (see 6DJ8)

ECC803--out of production, scarce and expensive. Premium European version of 12AX7. (see 12AX7)

ECC808--out of production, scarce and expensive. Special version of 12AX7, also called 6KX8. Strongly suggest converting equipment to accept 12AX7s. ECC808 is unlikely to be manufactured again.

ECL82--European name for 6BM8--manufactured by Svetlana.

EF86--small audio pentode, low noise--manufactured by Svetlana. Also see 6267. Technical Bulletin 23 - Audio Applications for the Svetlana EF86.

EL34--very popular power pentode used in guitar amps and hi-fi. Manufactured by Svetlana and elsewhere in Russia, and in Slovakia, Yugoslavia and China. Svetlana EL34 is extremely similar to the old Mullard version made in the 1970s, and sounds the same. No rebiasing of the amplifier is required to use the Svetlana version. Also see Technical Bulletin 16 - Power Tube Taste Test (Guitar Player magazine)

EL36--beam power tetrode, TV sweep type, used in some older RF linear amplifiers. Also called 6CM5. Out of production. Suggest modifying equipment to accept Svetlana EL509, this requires services of an experienced technician. EL509 requires SK509 socket, it and PC509 plate cap connector are also available from Svetlana.

EL37--beam power tube, uprated version of 6L6 type. Rare and valuable British tube, has a following among guitarists and audiophiles. Svetlana SV6L6GC is a close replacement in most amplifiers. Suggest consulting a service technician about operating conditions and biasing.

EL84--see 6BQ5.

EL84M--Russian-made version of EL84--see 6BQ5.

EL84N--previous name for power pentode now sold by Svetlana under name SV83. Has lower screen-grid voltage rating than conventional EL84. (see 6BQ5)

EL95--see 6DL5

EL509--EL509--TV sweep tube--Svetlana manufactures an excellent version. Also called 6KG6. EL509 requires SK509 socket and PC509 plate cap connector, also available from Svetlana. For applications information, see Technical Bulletin 32, "Save Your Dentron GLA-1000 with the Svetlana EL509", and Technical Bulletin 33, "Direct-Coupled SE Amplifier Using the EL509" (No.33 coming soon).

EL519--TV sweep tube--currently made in Yugoslavia. Svetlana EL509 is exact plug-in replacement.

ELL80--see 6HU8.

EM1--tuning-indicator tube, European only. Out of production, scarce and expensive. Unique 4-bladed shadow pattern. Used in Magnum-Dynalab MD108 FM tuner, as well as old European radios.

EM80, 81, 84, 85, 87--tuning-eye indicator tubes. Out of production.

EMM801--Tuning-indicator tube used in the old Dynaco FM-3 tuner. Out of production, scarce and expensive.

GI-30--beam power tetrode, made in Russia. Similar to 5894 and 829.

GM-70--power triode, made in Russia by Ulyanov. It has an underground audiophile following. Sockets are impossible to find, although an 832-type socket can be drilled out to accept the GM-70. Svetlana's SV572-3 or SV572-10 are more dependably available, and are recommended for new equipment design.

GMI-42B--pulse-power shielded grid triode, air cooled, for use up to 33 kV at 33 amps. Svetlana is originator and only manufacturer.

GP-5--beam triode for use up to 30 kV, similar to 6BK4 except for magnoval base. Made by Svetlana. Socket PC509 is also available from Svetlana.

GS-23B-- see 4CX1600U

GS-36B--Russian designator for Svetlana 4CX400A.

GU-13--Russian designator for 813.

GU-17--miniature transmitting beam tetrode. Made in Russia.

GU-19-1--transmitting beam tetrode. Made in Russia.

GU-29--Russian designator for 829A. Made in Russia.

GU-32--Russian designator for 832A. Made in Russia.

GU-34B--VHF transmitting tetrode. Made in Russia.

GU-48--Russian designator for 833A. Made in Ukraine. See 833A.

GU-50--VHF transmitting pentode. Made in Russia, used in an audio amplifier by Manley Laboratories.

KT61--beam power tube, similar to 6L6GC. Valuable and rare old British tube. Svetlana SV6L6GC is an excellent replacement. Modification of the amplifier may be required, as the KT61 has higher transconductance and different bias requirements. If user has an old amp using KT61s, suggest talking to an experienced technician before using Svetlana SV6L6GC.

KT63--beam power tube, similar to 6L6GC. Out of production. Valuable and rare old British tube. Svetlana SV6L6GC is an excellent replacement. Modification of the amplifier may be required, as the KT63 has different bias requirements. If user has an old amp using KT63s, suggest talking to an experienced technician before using Svetlana SV6L6GC.

KT66--beam power tube, uprated replacement for 6L6 types. Versions are made in Russia and China. Valuable old British tube, expensive and scarce. Svetlana SV6L6GC is an excellent performer and will directly substitute for it in most amps. If user has an old Quad II amp, suggest talking to an experienced technician before using Svetlana SV6L6GC.

KT77--beam power tube, uprated replacement for EL34. A version is made in China. Valuable old British tube, expensive and scarce. Svetlana EL34 is an excellent performer and will directly substitute for it in most amps.

KT88--beam power tube, similar to uprated 6550. Original MOV/Genalex version is valuable old British tube, expensive and scarce. Slovakian and Chinese versions are available. Svetlana SV6550C is an excellent performer and will directly substitute for it in most amps. Svetlana is developing its own version, for introduction in late 1999.

KT90--beam power tube, used in modern hi-fi amplifiers. Unique KT88-like tube made by factory in Yugoslavia. Svetlana SV6550C is an excellent, exact plug-in substitute, requiring only a bias adjustment.

KT99--version of KT90--see KT90.

KT100--Chinese version of KT90--See KT90.

M2057--very similar to 8950. See 8950.

NL1096--Air cooled power triode used for industrial heating. Manufactured by Svetlana and others to the 8161/TH5-6 specification.

PL519--TV sweep tube with 40-volt heater, made in Yugoslavia. Used in a few high-end amplifiers. Svetlana EL509 can be substituted by providing 6.3 volts to heater.

SV6L6GC--glass beam-power tetrode, Svetlana version of 6L6GC, popular in guitar amps. Svetlana SV6L6GC is high-quality, exact replacement for all 6L6 or 5881 types. No rebiasing of amp is required to use SV6L6GC. See 6L6GC, 6L6, 5881. Also see Technical Bulletin 16 - Power Tube Taste Test (Guitar Player magazine)

SV83--glass power pentode, made in Russia, sold by Svetlana. Similar to EL84 except for screen-grid and plate voltage ratings. Technical Bulletin No. 29 shows how to use the SV83 in an EL84 amplifier. Technical Bulletin 27 - A High-Performance Mu Stage Using the Svetlana 6N1P and SV83.

SV300B--Svetlana's high-quality reproduction of the original Western Electric 300B tube. Exact plug-in replacement for any 252A, 300A, 300B, VV300B or similar. See 300B.

SV572-3--audio power triode, low mu--Svetlana is originator and only manufacturer. Unlike old 572B transmitting tube (which Svetlana also makes). Data sheets and Technical Bulletins are available for its application. SV572-3 is exact plug-in replacement for SV811-3 and SV811-3A.

SV572-10--audio power triode, low mu--Svetlana is originator and only manufacturer. Unlike old 572B transmitting tube (which Svetlana also makes). Data sheets and Technical Bulletins are available for its application. SV572-10 is exact plug-in replacement for SV811-10 and SV811-10A.

SV572-30--audio power triode, medium mu--Svetlana is originator and only manufacturer. Unlike old 572B transmitting tube (which Svetlana also makes). Data sheets and Technical Bulletins are available for its application. Similar to 812A except for plate ratings and base connections.

SV572-160--audio power triode, high mu--Svetlana is originator and only manufacturer. Similar to old 572B transmitting tube (which Svetlana also makes), except SV572-160 has plate connection to a base pin rather than a plate cap. Data sheets and Technical Bulletins are available for its application.

SV811-3--audio power triode, low mu--Svetlana is originator and only manufacturer. Unlike old 811A transmitting tube. Data sheets and Technical Bulletins are available for its application. Identical to SV811-3A except for glass envelope shape.

SV811-3A--audio power triode, low mu--Svetlana is originator and only manufacturer. Unlike old 811A transmitting tube. Data sheets and Technical Bulletins are available for its application. Identical to SV811-3 except for glass envelope shape.

SV811-10--audio power triode, low mu--Svetlana is originator and only manufacturer. Unlike old 811A transmitting tube. Data sheets and Technical Bulletins are available for its application. Identical to SV811-10A except for glass envelope shape.

SV811-10A--audio power triode, low mu--Svetlana is originator and only manufacturer. Unlike old 811A transmitting tube. Data sheets and Technical Bulletins are available for its application. Identical to SV811-10 except for glass envelope shape.

SV6550C--glass beam-power tetrode, very popular in high-end audio amplifiers and bass-guitar amps. Svetlana SV6550C is high-quality, exact replacement for ALL 6550 types. Rebiasing of some older amps may be required to let them accept SV6550C. Suggest contacting an experienced technician or the equipment manufacturer.

TH5-4--air-cooled power triode used for industrial heating-- made by Svetlana and in USA. Svetlana TH5-4 is identical to TH5-4 and TH5-6 except for mesh filament, other TH5-4s have older hairpin filament.

TH5-6--air-cooled power triode used for industrial heating-- made by Svetlana and in USA. Version of TH5-4 with mesh filament.

TH6-3--air-cooled power triode used for industrial heating-- made by Svetlana and in USA. Electrically identical to 3CX10,000A3. Similar TH6-3A has added grid flange.

TH6-3A--air-cooled power triode used for industrial heating-- made by Svetlana and in USA. Electrically identical to 3CX10,000A3. Identical to TH6-3 except for added grid flange.

TH328--UHF-TV power triode--still made in Europe.

TH347--UHF-TV power tetrode--still made in Europe.

TH382--UHF-TV power tetrode--still made in Europe.

TH563--UHF-TV power tetrode--still made in Europe.

TH571--TV power tetrode--still made in Europe.

TH582--UHF-TV power tetrode--still made in Europe.

WD-11--antique-radio triode. Out of production, increasingly scarce, only possible substitute 864 is also scarce.

VF14--old German radio tube, used in studio microphones. One of the world's scarcest tubes. A new one sells for $1500. Owners of Neumann U47 microphones are told that only the VF14 is a good-sounding tube in their microphones. U47 owners must buy used tubes from specialist dealers. The Svetlana EF86 can be retrofitted into microphones with some modification and is an excellent performer in this application. Suggest consulting an experienced technician.

VT-4C--see 211.

VT-52--see 45.

Y442--made by Svetlana, exact equivalent to 4CPW10,000R. See 4CPW10,000R.

Y497--see 4CX250BT

Y497A--matched version of Y497--see 4CX250BT

Y584A--power tetrode--still made in USA. Will be introduced by Svetlana in early 1999. Pricing not yet established.

Y644--special version of 4CX250BC--made by Svetlana, price/delivery is same as 4CX250BC. See 4CX250BC.

YC108A--power tetrode--made by Svetlana--same price and delivery as 4CX5000R. See 4CX5000R.

YC130/9019--air-cooled power tetrode used in FM transmitters-- made by Svetlana and in USA.

YD1202--industrial heating triode----still made in Europe.

YU108--air-cooled power triode used in industrial heating, made by Svetlana and in USA, same as 3CX4500F3. See 3CX4500F3.

YU148--air-cooled power triode used in FM broadcast transmitters, made by Svetlana and in USA, same as 3CX6000A7. See 3CX6000A7.